The third theory is that man should not despair of the future? Why, then, has he despaired in the past? This view claims that the reason for it is inability to find the root-cause of human pains. The reason lies not in ignorance and weakness etc., it lies in the kind of ideology which rules over man,
According to this theory, in addition to science, culture and technology, there are also ideology and religion which rule over man and society. To enable man to combat against his weak points, a change of ideology is necessary. In the opinion of adherents of this theory, since man abandoned the early communal system and replaced it with private ownership causing so much confusion throughout history, and has based these ideologies on private ownership and class system creating social systems on their basis, all these problems have existed as long as an ideology which rules over man dominates him, an ideology which allows him to exploit other human beings legally and legitimately, such baseness, disquiet, losses, bloodshed, disputes, wars, homicide and cruelties and every other kind of wickedness will exist.
All these will be removed only when this ideology is changed, and with a collective unity all beings will become equal and brotherly. Then, there will be no oppression, and no fear and anxiety. It is then that man, parallel with his material and technical evolution, will also gradually develop in his human dimensions, and with his physical growth he will attain mental and spiritual growth as well.
Marxism considers all the sufferings to have their root in class ideology and private ownership, and so an evolved society must be a classless one.
There are many objections to this view and theory. One of them is whether a ruling ideology is due to the nature of men, and of dominant men. Or is it because of the nature of dominant men that ideology has taken this form? Can you, who believe in objectivity as prior to subjectivity, say that the ruling class has an oppressive ideology because such a class has an oppressive nature? Or is it their sense of profit seeking that causes this? There is this quality in man that he seeks profit so far as possible. Thus, ideology is a tool in human hand, and not man as a tool for the ideology created by himself.
If an ideology is changed, human beings remain unchanged and there are other ways for them. Even with a human and anti-class ideology, man can carry on the exploitation of other human beings. The point is that with the changes in systems, man keeps on using his nature to play with those systems and use them as tools. Do human beings have freedom in the countries where there is followed a so-called anti-exploitation and anti-class ideology? Does there exist any equality?
There is no equality in happiness, but there is an equality in unhappiness. There are social classes but not in the form of economic strata. Ten million out of two hundred million people hold the rein of everything in the name of the Communist Party. Do they allow the remaining one hundred and ninety million to be in the Communist Party? If they do so, the privileges of the minority will be lost. (Or is it that the majority dislikes Communism so much that it willingly foregoes the membership of that Party at the cost of losing those privileges?
In fact, the worst types of suppressions and miseries take place in the name of an anti-class ideology, whereas actually a new class is formed without being called so.
Moreover, if an ideology is only a view or a philosophy, has this view or philosophy the power to change human nature? Never!
Why is knowledge unable to change human nature? Because knowledge is only understanding and awareness. An ideology whose elements are only recognition without having an element of faith, namely inclination, cannot affect human nature.
A view so long as it remains only a view or philosophy and is related to human mind and understanding, has no effect on human nature. It is only a way of distinguishing one’s interests more clearly and becoming more far-sighted.
But it cannot provide a higher understanding, and if human nature lacks a higher goal, how can man find such a goal? When thought has no genuineness, it cannot control man. Therefore, Marxism must necessarily admit such realities as nature, faith, true morality etc. in order to resolve the problem of inclination.