Islamic conception of the world is monotheistic. Islam has presented monotheism in its purest form. From Islamic point of view, Allah has no like of Him and nothing can be compared to Him: “There is nothing like Him.” (Surah ash-Shura, 42:11)
Allah is absolutely independent. All depend on Him, but He depends on none:
“You are in need of Allah. And Allah! He is Absolute, Laudable.” (Surah al-Fatir, 35:15)
Allah is aware of everything. He can do whatever He likes:
“He is fully aware of everything.” (Surah ash-Shura, 42:12)
“He is able to do all things.” (Surah al-Hajj, 22:6)
Allah is everywhere. Every place, whether it is above the sky or in the depth of the earth has the same relation to Him. To whatever direction we stand, we face Him: “Wherever you turn, there is Allah’s countenance” (Surah al-Baqarah, 2:115)
Allah knows what is in the hearts of people. He is aware of their intentions and aims: “Indeed We have created man and We know what his soul whispers.” (Surah Qaf, 50:16)
Allah is closer to man than his jugular vein: “We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.” (Surah Qaf, 50:16)
Allah has all the good attributes and is free from every defect: “Allah’s are the fairest names.” (Surah al-A’raf, 7:180)
Allah is not a material organism and cannot be seen with eyes: “Vision does not comprehend Him, but He comprehends all vision.” (Surah al-An’am, 6:103)
From the stand point of monotheistic and Islamic conception of the world, the universe is a creation and is looked after by Divine will and attention. If Divine attention were withheld for a moment, the whole universe would be annihilated in no time.
This world has not been created in vain or in jest. There are many advantages implied in the creation of man and the world. Nothing has been created unbecoming and futile. The existing system of the universe is the best and the most perfect. It manifests justice and truth and is based on a sequence of causes and effects. Every result is a logical consequence of a cause and every cause produces a specific effect. Divine destiny brings a thing into existence through its specific causes only, and it is a chain of causes which constitutes the Divine destiny of a thing.
Divine will always operates in the world in the form of a law or a general principle. Divine laws do not change. Whatever changes take place, they are always in accordance with some law. Good and evil in the world are related to man’s own conduct and his own deeds. Good deeds and bad deeds, besides being recompensed in the next world, have their reaction in this world also. Gradual evolution is a Divine law. This world is a nursery for the development of man.
Divine destiny is supreme in the whole world. Man has been destined by it to be free and responsible. He is the master of his own destiny. Man has his special dignity. He is fit to be the vicegerent of Allah. This world and the Hereafter are but two interconnected stages like those of sowing and harvest, for one reaps what one sows. They may also be compared to the two periods of childhood and old age, for the latter period is the outcome of the former.